- Types of climate change responses (based on IPCC 2014, AR5, WGII, Ch. 20)
- Climate-resilient pathways: actions that mitigate climate change or help groups adapt to it; actions that help risk management strategies become an integral part of a group or society’s development. They are termed pathways because they are processes (not end goals) built on constantly evolving knowledge. These pathways can be incremental or transformational, and reactive or intentional/proactive (IPCC 2014, AR5, WGII, Ch. 20).
- Resilience: the ability of a community or group of people to “bounce back” from a damaging event. The term is frequently used in development literature.
In terms of climate change adaptation, resilience can be seen as an innovative development process, whereby societies continuously move from a more adapted to less vulnerable state (Folke, 2006).
- Transformational changes: occur when systems fundamentally change their patterns, dynamics, locations, or other characteristics (IPCC 2014, AR5, WGII, Ch. 20)
- Ecosystem-based adaptation: promotes recovering and maintaining ecosystem services and resilience of natural resources in the face of climate change effects, rather costly engineering solutions (IUCN)