- Green infrastructure – This is an emerging field that has existed for a few decades. It meshes knowledge from the fields of ecology (particularly the part relating to landscapes), urban planning, geographical analysis, economics, and information systems. It studies how ecosystem services can be incorporated into plans for cities, with the intent of benefiting society but not at the cost of damaging the ecosystem it relies on.
- Grey infrastructure – physical infrastructure systems that are usually predominantly artificial. The most common forms of infrastructure are water supply, waste water/sewage, power supply.
- Integrated urban water resource management – This is a new idea that is not a field of expertise so much as a process. It considers the entire cycle of water, including ecological aspects of it (rain and groundwater, for example), as well as how humans use it (storage, distribution, treatment, recycling, etc). The purpose of this process is to allow humans to use water in a way that also conserves it and the places it comes from.
- Water sensitive urban design – This is the collaboration of expertise from fields relating to water management, urban design, and landscape planning, and its main focus is storm water.